7 Reasons Why Switzerland Is The Best-Run Country In The World

瑞士是最佳國家的七個理由

Switzerland is a remarkably stable and economically strong country. It was recently named the world’s most competitive countryby the World Economic Forum, and it’s avoided the debt and unemployment that have plagued the whole world, and its neighbors in particular.

That’s not the only way it beats other nations. From a Credit Suisse bulletinexamining the country’s success:

“The verdict is in, and it is unequivocal. Whether we are comparing global business locations and the civil liberties they enjoy, considering the number of Nobel Laureates or the quality of academics, entrepreneurs, artists and authors, Switzerland has long occupied the topmost echelons.” 

German economist Gerd Habermann came up with seven reasons which, while partially specific to governments and countries, can easily be applied to business.

 

瑞士是一個穩定的經濟大國。它最近被世界經濟論壇(World Economic Forum)稱為世界上最有競爭力的國家,瑞士避開了債務還有失業率,而這些正是讓世界上其他國家困擾的問題,尤其是鄰近瑞士的國家。而瑞士贏過其他國家的地方還不止這個。瑞士瑞信银行分析了瑞士的成功原因:「這其實很明顯。我們比較了世界交易的地點還有他們的公民自由、諾貝爾獎得主的數量以及教育,以及企業家、藝術家、作家的水準,瑞士已經佔據第一名很久了。」

 

德國經濟學家Gerd Habermann提出了瑞士強大的七個理由,對於政府還有國家們是很實際的,很容易能推導到經濟上。

 

Small is good

小即是好

 

Each level of government (or management) gets more expensive and more unwieldy as it gets larger. The highest level is often the most expensive. Because Switzerland is a small country, every level is small and agile. Additionally, the size of government doesn’t scale up massively as you reach the federal level. 

 

政府(或管理部門)的每一個層級隨著規模增大,所需要的花費越多,而且整體越笨重。最高層級通常花費最大。瑞士是一個小國家,所以每個階層規模都小且敏捷。另外,政府的規模在達到聯邦規模時,就不再大幅增加了。

 

 

There are few middlemen and everyone is accountable

幾乎每個人都能直接參與事務,而且每個人都很負責

 

Switzerland doesn’t have the massive bureaucratic class that many European neighbors and other governments, and the voter has more power than almost anywhere else. That includes the ability to vote on public spending, and elect judges. The government is accountable at all levels.

 

瑞士不像它的歐洲鄰國或其它政府,瑞士的官僚階級很少,而且瑞士投票人擁有比世界其它地方更大的力量。這份力量包括對公共開支的投票權力,以及法官的選舉。瑞士政府對所有管理層級都負起了責任。

 

Everything is decentralized

所有事情都是分散的

 

The federal government in Switzerland has power over only a small portion of tax dollars. Cantons (equivalent in many ways to states) and municipalities have powers of taxation. Every part of the country competes to be as attractive to businesses and people as it can.

 

瑞士的聯邦政府只對一小部分稅收有權力。邦(又稱州)和直轄市則對稅收有多種權力。這個國家的每一區域都為了吸引商機以及人才而互相競爭。

 

Most decisions are made at the local level

許多決定都是由地方決定的

 

Because the country is so decentralized, decisions tend to be practical and informed by the needs of a small area, so there’s less lost in translation to higher authorities. Also, the impact of bad decisions is limited, and everything’s faster because people don’t have to keep appealing to higher ups. 

 

由於這個國家的權力是分散模式,所做出的決定通常都很實際,而且是根據小區域的需求做出的,這避免了高層級到低層管理階層間的資源浪費。同時,也很少做出壞決定,事情的效率加快,因為人們不需要去討好高階層的人。

 

There are no career politicians

沒有政客

 

Switzerland doesn’t have career politicians. Citizens serve for a time but also work independently. That avoids the pet projects, the influence peddling, and conflicts of interest that can result when you have a separate, professional long serving political class.

The business lesson here is that management can easily become stagnant, and centralized, long lasting authority can be problematic.

 

瑞士沒有政客。公民會為大眾服務一段時間,但是同時也獨立運作。這避免了一些只為了討好某些人而設的政策、賄賂、利益衝突,這要歸功於權力分散、專業的長期政治服務階層。從這裡我們可以學到,統治、管理可以很容易變成失能、集權,長期而集中的權力會是一個問題。

 

The country is a safe haven for money and brain power

瑞士是一個金錢和才智的安全避風港

 

Staying neutral and avoiding political and other sorts of prejudice have seen Switzerland accumulate a huge amount of financial and intellectual capital. Countries and businesses can lose when they put personal ideology ahead of practicality.

 

保持中立以及避免政治或其他方面的偏見讓瑞士成為經濟和才智的首都。國家和商業會因為個人偏見被看得比實用性重而失敗。

 

There’s a core middle class attitude

核心中產階級態度

 

Switzerland’s culture isn’t defined by a particular ethnicity, language, or religion, but an attitude, and one that businesses would do well to emulate. It’s defined by “moderation, mainstream thinking and deliberation, for business sense, a no-nonsense attitude and realism,” Habermann writes.

 

瑞士的文化不由特定的種族、語言、宗教決定,而是由態度決定,仿效這個態度可以帶來經濟的成功。這個態度的定義是, Habermann,寫到:「適度、主流思想以及深思熟慮,而商業的判斷力的部分,則是嚴肅以及實際。」

 

AP Photo/Keystone, Martin Ruetschi

圖片來源:AP Photo/Keystone, Martin Ruetschi

 

 

來源:businessinsider