Mind-Blowing: There is a 2 BILLION-Year-Old natural Nuclear Reactor in Africa 超出想像:非洲有一個二十億年的自然核反應器

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Mind-Blowing: There is a 2 BILLION-Year-Old natural Nuclear Reactor in Africa

超出想像:非洲有一個二十億年的自然核反應器

A worker stands next to a deposit of, among other things, naturally depleted uranium.

一位工人站在自然形成的耗乏鈾沈積物旁邊。

 

Two billion years ago, parts of an African uranium deposit spontaneously underwent nuclear fission. Scientists estimate that this nuclear reactor –which consists of 16 sites—has been operational for at least 500,000 years in the distant past. Incredibly, compared with this massive nuclear reactor, our modern-day nuclear reactors are not comparable both in design and functionality.

The nuclear reactor consists of 16 sites. As it is noted in Scientific American, It is truly amazing that more than a dozen natural reactors spontaneously sprang into existence and that they managed to maintain a modest power output for perhaps a few hundred millennia.”

 

二十億年前,一部分的非洲鈾沈澱物自發性地進行核分裂。這個自然核反應器分佈在16 個地方,科學家推測這個自然核反應器已經在遙遠的過去運作了至少五十萬年。這很驚人,與這個巨大的自然核反應器比較,我們今日的現代核反應器在設計上和功能上都比不過它。

 

這個自然核反應器分佈在16 個地方。科學人雜誌刊載的內容指出:「這確實令人驚嘆,超過一打的自然核反應器真的存在,他們在極長的時間裡保持了適度的輸出功率。」

 

 

The discovery is so fascinating that researchers saidthat the discovery of the Oklo natural nuclear reactor in Gabon (West Africa) in 1972 was possibly one of the most momentous events in reactor physics since 1942 when Enrico Fermi and his team achieved an artificial self-sustained fission chain reaction.

Whenever we hear the term ‘nuclear reactor’ we think of a structure created artificially. However, that’s not the case here. This nuclear reactor is in fact located in a region of natural uranium within our planet’s crust, located in Okla, Gabon.

As it turns out, Uranium is naturally radioactive, and the conditions that occurred in Okla happened to be PERFECT allowing nuclear reactions to take place.

In fact, Oklo is the ONLY known location for this on the planet and consists of 16 sites at which scientists say ‘self-sustaining’ nuclear fissions occurred around 1.7 billion years ago, averaging around 100 kW of thermal power during that time. The Oklo uranium ore deposits are the only known sites in which natural nuclear reactors existed, but how? Why is it that no other place on Earth has a natural nuclear reactor?

 

這個發現非常出色,研究人員說:「這個1972 年時被發現,位於西非加彭奧克洛Oklo)的自然核反應器可說是自1942 年來,在反應器物理領域中最重大的發現,也就是說是自恩里科·费米Enrico Fermi)與他的團隊在成就「人工自給分裂鏈」後,此領域中最重要的發現。

 

無論我們何時聽到「核反應器」這個詞,我們會想到一個人工製造的結構。但是,這個例子卻不是。這個核反應器事實上位於我們的地殼中某地區的自然鈾裡,就在西非加彭奧克洛

 

鈾自然地有放射能,奧克洛是讓核反應發生的完美地區。事實上,奧克洛是唯一一個全地球已知的有自然核反應器的地點,由16 處組成,科學家說「自給」核分裂在大約17 億年前發生,那時平均約有100 千瓦的熱能。奧克洛的鈾礦沈積物是唯一已知的自然核反應器的存在地點,但是這是如何發生的呢?為什麼地球上的其他地方沒有自然核反應器呢?

 

According to reports, the natural nuclear reactor formed when a uranium-rich mineral deposit became inundated with groundwater that acted as a neutron moderator, and a nuclear chain reaction took place. The heat generated from the nuclear fission caused the groundwater to boil away, which slowed or stopped the reaction. After cooling of the mineral deposit, the water returned and the reaction restarted, completing a full cycle every 3-hours. The fission reaction cycles continued for hundreds of thousands of years and ended when the ever decreasing fissile materials no longer could sustain a chain reaction.

This mind-bending discovery was made in 1972 when French scientists took uranium ore from the mine in Gabon to test its uranium content. Uranium ore is composed of three isotopes of uranium, and each one of them contains a different number of neutrons. There is Uranium 238, uranium 234, and uranium 235.

 

根據報告,這個自然核反應器在這樣的狀況下產生:富含鈾的礦物沈積物被地下水淹沒,這些水扮演中子緩和劑的角色,接著核鏈反應發生。核分裂產生的熱使地下水蒸發,使反應變慢或停止。在礦物沈積物冷卻後,地下水又復甦,反應又重新開始,每三小時一次循環。這個核分裂反應循環一直繼續,持續一段極長時間,直到可分裂材料減少,無法再支撐連鎖反應。

 

1972 年,當法國科學家在加彭開採鈾礦,測試鈾含量時候,他們發現了這個超出想像的發現。鈾礦是由三種鈾的同位素組成的,每一種都含有不同數量的中子。包含鈾-238、鈾-234、鈾-235

 

Uranium 235 is the one which scientists are most interested in because it can sustain nuclear chain reactions.

What is surprising is that a nuclear reaction had occurred in a way that the plutonium, the by-product, was created, and the nuclear reaction itself had been moderated. This is something considered as a holy grail” of atomic science. The ability to moderate the reaction means that once the reaction was initiated, it was possible to leverage the output power in a controlled way, with the capacity to prevent catastrophic explosions or the release of the energy at a single time.

 

-235 是起學家最感興趣的,因為它可以支撐核鏈反應。令人驚訝的是,這個核反應會產生這個副產品,而且這個核反應本身會被緩和下來。這在原子科學中被認為是「聖杯」。能緩和反應表示一旦這個反應被啟動,它就可以以平衡的方式來控制輸出功率,以及有可以預防災難性爆炸、一次性能量釋放的負載量。

 

 

 

Oklo, the Two Billion Year Old Nuclear Reactor

 

奧克洛,有二十億年歷史的核反應器。

 

They also found that water had been used to moderate the reaction in the same way that modern nuclear reactors cool down using graphite-cadium shafts preventing the reactor from going into critical state and exploding. All of this, in nature” of course. After all, nature is incredible in every single way.

But, Why is it that these parts of the deposit did not explode and destroy themselves right after nuclear chain reactions began? What mechanism provided the necessary self-regulation? Did these reactors run steadily or in fits and starts?

 

他們同時發現,水被用來緩和反應,和現代的核反應器使用鉛鎘軸來防止反應器到達臨界狀態而爆炸的作用一樣。當然,在奧克洛的一切都是自然的。總之,大自然在所有方面都是如此神奇。

 

但是,為什麼這部分的沈積物在核鏈反應開始後沒有馬上爆炸並毀滅自己呢?是什麼機制提供了必須的自我調整?這些反應是穩定地發生還是時有時無呢?

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yS53AA_WaUk

 

 

來源:ancientcode

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