Playing GOD: Scientists successfully create new DNA to make ‘ALIEN’ life form
扮演上帝:科學家成功創造新的 DNA 來製造「 外星 」生命形態

Scientists are literally on the brink of creating new ‘Alien’ life forms after successfully creating a synthetic DNA altering the code of life for the first time.
如字面上的意思,在科學家成功地創造人造 DNA,第一次改變生命密碼之後,
他們就快要創造出新的「 外星 」生命形態。
As technology moves forward, scientists are able to achieve what was previously considered impossible. Now, scientists are on the verge of creating NEW lifeforms after managing to EXPAND the genetic code for the fist time.
Scientists from the US has managed to genetically engineer common E-Coli microbes to add molecules which aren’t present naturally in the bacteria.
During the long history of life on earth, the Code of life has been ‘programmed’ with DNA combined with four principal letters: G (guanine), T (thymine), C (cytosine) and A (adenine). These are the molecules which match with the DNA helix and eventually give us our UNIQUE Code.

當科技進步,科學家得以達成先前認為不可能的事。現在,在科學家第一次擴展基因密碼之後,他們就快要創造出新的生命形態。美國科學對常見的大腸桿菌進行基因工程,加入在自然狀態下不存在於菌中的分子。

在地球生命漫長的歷史中,生命的密碼由 DNA 「 程序化 」,DNA 由四個原則字母組成: G ( 鳥嘌呤,guanine )、T ( 胸腺嘧啶,thymine )、C( 胞嘧啶,cytosine )、A( 腺嘌呤,adenine )。這些分子與 DNA 螺旋相合,最終給我們專屬的獨特密碼。

Scientists however, have managed to EXTEND this code, adding TWO new molecules which they have called X and Y, leading to a completely NEW life form.
The reason? MEDICINE.
Experts behind the revolutionary project state that they have created the synthetic DNA in order to allow the bacterium to create new forms of proteins which could eventually be used in different medical treatments.
Speaking about the groundbreaking achievement, Dr. Romesberg lead scientist from the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California stated:
“Your genome has to be stable for the scale of your lifetime. If the semisynthetic organism is going to really be an organism, it has to be able to stably maintain that information. Life on Earth in all its diversity is encoded by only two pairs of DNA bases, A-T and C-G, and what we’ve made is an organism that stably contains those two plus a third, unnatural pair of bases.”
“This shows that other solutions to storing information are possible and of course, takes us closer to an expanded-DNA biology that will have many exciting applications – from new medicines to new kinds of nanotechnology.”

然而,科學家擴展了密碼,加入兩個新的分子,分別稱為 X 和 Y,創造出一個全新的生命形態。這樣做的理由是?答案是藥。這個革新計畫背後的專家們表示,他們已經創造出人造 DNA,為了讓細菌製造出新的蛋白質形態,這種新形態最終可以用於不同的醫療用途。

說到突破性的成就,美國加州的斯克利普斯研究所的首席科學家 Romesberg 博士說:「 你的基因組必須穩定,你的人生才能長久。如果半合成有機體要成為一個真正的器官,它必須能維持穩定。地球上的生物多樣性都是由兩對 DNA 編碼出來的,也就是 A-T 和 C-G 鹼基對,而我們所做的就是創造一個除了擁有這兩對外,還有非自然的第三對鹼基對的有機體,並且是以穩定的狀態存在。這顯示其他種儲存信息的方法是可能的,也讓我們更接近一個擴展 DNA 的生物學,這種生物學可以有許多令人興奮的應用,從新藥到新的納米技術。 」

But the process doesn’t end there. In fact, according to the study which has been published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the next step is to prove that ‘artificial, or unnatural DNA’ can be transcribed INTO the RNA molecules of the bacterium, which could open up countless possibilities for researchers like allowing them to control the bacterium’s future actions. Scary right?
Dr. Romesburg concluded: “In principle, we could encode new proteins made from new, unnatural amino acids, which would give us greater power than ever to tailor protein therapeutics and diagnostics and laboratory reagents to have desired functions.
“Other applications, such as nanomaterials, are also possible.”

但整個程序並不在這裡結束。事實上,根據刊登在美國科學學院院刊( Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences )的研究,下一個步驟是證明那個人造、非自然的 DNA 可以被轉錄成細菌的 RNA 分子,這可以讓研究人員擁有數不清的可能性,讓他們控制細菌的未來行動。聽起來很可怕對吧?

Romesberg 博士總結:「 原則上,我們可以編碼由新的、非自然氨基酸製造的新蛋白質,這可以給予我們前所未有的力量去訂製蛋白質療法、診斷法、實驗試劑,讓它們有我們要的功能。其他的應用,像是納米材料,也是可能的。」

來源: ancientcode