[fusion_builder_container hundred_percent=”no” equal_height_columns=”no” menu_anchor=”” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” class=”” id=”” background_color=”” background_image=”” background_position=”center center” background_repeat=”no-repeat” fade=”no” background_parallax=”none” parallax_speed=”0.3″ video_mp4=”” video_webm=”” video_ogv=”” video_url=”” video_aspect_ratio=”16:9″ video_loop=”yes” video_mute=”yes” overlay_color=”” video_preview_image=”” border_size=”” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” padding_top=”” padding_bottom=”” padding_left=”” padding_right=””][fusion_builder_row][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ type=”1_1″ background_position=”left top” background_color=”” border_size=”” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” border_position=”all” spacing=”yes” background_image=”” background_repeat=”no-repeat” padding_top=”” padding_right=”” padding_bottom=”” padding_left=”” margin_top=”0px” margin_bottom=”0px” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_direction=”left” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” center_content=”no” last=”true” min_height=”” hover_type=”none” link=”” first=”true”][fusion_text]

Scientists aim to build an artificial MAGNETIC SHIELD around Mars to make it habitable AGAIN


Scientists have a new plan to bring mars back to life. Image credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

科學家有一個讓火星起死回生的新計畫。圖片來源:ESO/M. Kornmesser


Scientists have come up with an ingenious new way of bringing Mars back to ‘life’. Experts want to create an artificial magnetic field in the orbit between Mars and the Sun in order to protect the planet’s atmosphere and create a more favorable environment for future human explorers. Perhaps one-seventh of the ancient ocean could return to Mars,” scientists said.


科學家提出一個讓火星起死回生的嶄新方法。專家們想要在火星和太陽之間的軌道上建造一個人工磁性防護罩(artificial magnetic field),以此保護火星的大氣層,並且為未來在火星上探索的人員們創造一個更良好的環境。科學家說:「或許古代海洋有七分之一的機率能在火星上重現。」


NASA scientists say that even though the red planet had a magnetic field, around 4.2 billion years ago it shut down.

According to scientists, Mars once had an atmosphere very similar to Earth. The slow destruction of our neighbor’s planet atmosphere was caused by huge rope-like tendrils of magnetic rotations”. The red planet’s once hospitable atmosphere was blown away in the distant past. The process of Mars losing its precious atmosphere most likely occurred over a period of several hundred million years. Scientists speculate that during this time, the red planet was hit by extreme ultraviolet photons” from the sun. Before this happened, water was most likely abundant on the red planet and it is very likely that life as we know it could have developed on Mars.


NASA 的科學家們說,雖然火星曾有磁性防護罩,但在大約四十二億年前它失效了。根據科學家們的說法,火星曾經擁有與地球大氣層非常相似的大氣層。我們這位鄰居星球的大氣層慢慢地崩壞,這是由「大規模法拉第效應也是所知的磁旋轉magnetic rotation)的繩狀捲鬚」引起的。火星曾經良好的大氣層在遙遠的過去被毀滅。火星失去它珍貴大氣層的過程耗時數億年。科學家推測,在那段時間裡,火星曾經被來自太陽的「極強的紫外線光子」攻擊。在這發生之前,火星上的水似乎非很豐沛,而且生命很可能在火星上發展。


A diagram of a magnetic shield to protect Mars from bombardment by solar particles.

NASA/Jim Green


保護火星、使其不受太陽粒子轟擊的磁性防護罩示意圖。圖片來源:NASA/Jim Green

It turns that over its long history, the red planet lost around 90 percent of its atmosphere. What remains today is carbon dioxide, while oxygen leaks from Mars’ atmosphere as solar winds strike the planet.

Without a ‘proper’ atmosphere, Mars would remain a dry, cold place where life is unable to exist. This represents the greatest difficulty facing future manned missions – which NASA plans to launch by 2030. Exposure to radiation and danger of dying from asphyxiation will be some of the dangers future Astronauts on Mars will face.


在火星漫長的歷史中,火星失去了大約百分之九十的大氣層。今日還留存的是二氧化碳,火星大氣層中的氧在太陽風攻擊火星時流失掉了。沒有了良好的大氣層,火星成為一個乾燥、寒冷的地方,生命無法存在。這顯示未來的載人飛行任務會面對很多困難。NASA 計畫在2030 年開始這些計畫。未來在火星上的太空人將面對暴露在輻射中的危險、窒息而死的危險。


Now, in order to bring the red planet back to ‘life’, a group of scientists led by Dr. Jim Green, director of NASA’s Division of Planetary Science, have presented an ambitious plan. In essence, the proposal is to position a magnetic dipole at the Lagrange L1point on Mars, generating an artificial magneto-bridge” that would cover the entire planet and protect it from solar wind and radiation.

It may be feasible that we can get up to these higher field strengths that are necessary to provide that shielding,” Green said. We need to be able then to also modify that direction of the magnetic field so that it always pushes the solar wind away.”


現在,為了讓火星起死回生,一組由吉姆·格林(Jim Green)博士領導的科學家團隊提出了一個雄心勃勃的計劃。吉姆·格林是NASA 的行星科學部主任。總括而言,這個提案建議在火星上的拉格朗日點L1 設置一個磁性偶極,產生一個人工「磁性防護罩」,這可以罩住整個火星,並且保護它不受太陽風和太陽輻射的傷害。




Clever right?

Dr, Green and his colleagues are fully aware that they plan sounds easier than it actually is.

Perhaps one-seventh of the ancient ocean could return to Mars,” Green said.

This is not terraforming as you may think of it where we actually artificially change the climate but we let nature do it, and we do that based on the physics we know today,” Green said. This tells us that perhaps we don’t have all the physics in the model we need. We have a little more work in this area.”








Furthermore, scientists believe that this type of ‘shield’ could create a favorable environment that would help melt the water in Mars’ polar caps.

To test the idea, the team of researchersconducted a series of simulations for the suggested artificial magnetosphere, reaching the conclusion that it would effectively counteract solar radiation and create a balance in the Martian atmosphere, increasing the average temperature of the planet to 4ºC.




The latter would be sufficient to melt the ice of carbon dioxide present in the polar caps of the northern hemisphere. As a consequence, there would be a greenhouse effect that would further heat the atmosphere.

As reported by Inverse, experts found that increasing the magnetic dipole would stop solar wind stripping. However, increasing the surface pressure doesn’t have a large effect on Mars’s global temperature and it increases dust in the atmosphere. But in some cases, the equator heats up and the polar caps collapse, causing CO2 ice caps grow and stabilizing Mars’ climate.


火星的增溫可以有效地讓火星北半球極冠裡的乾冰溶解,其結果會讓溫室效應發生,這可以更進一步加熱大氣層。根據 Inverse的報導,專家們發現,增加磁性偶極可以阻止太陽風肆虐。然而,增加表面壓力無法對火星全球溫度產生可觀影響,同時這會增加大氣層中的灰塵。但是在某些案例中,當赤道升溫、極冠崩解,這會讓乾冰冰冠增長,並且會穩定火星的氣候。