[fusion_builder_container hundred_percent=”no” equal_height_columns=”no” menu_anchor=”” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” class=”” id=”” background_color=”” background_image=”” background_position=”center center” background_repeat=”no-repeat” fade=”no” background_parallax=”none” parallax_speed=”0.3″ video_mp4=”” video_webm=”” video_ogv=”” video_url=”” video_aspect_ratio=”16:9″ video_loop=”yes” video_mute=”yes” overlay_color=”” video_preview_image=”” border_size=”” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” padding_top=”” padding_bottom=”” padding_left=”” padding_right=””][fusion_builder_row][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ type=”1_1″ background_position=”left top” background_color=”” border_size=”” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” border_position=”all” spacing=”yes” background_image=”” background_repeat=”no-repeat” padding_top=”” padding_right=”” padding_bottom=”” padding_left=”” margin_top=”0px” margin_bottom=”0px” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_direction=”left” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” center_content=”no” last=”true” min_height=”” hover_type=”none” link=”” first=”true”][fusion_text]The first humans arrived in North America 10,000 years earlier than previously thought

Another discovery that forces us to rewrite history. The first humans arrived in North America through the Bering Strait 10,000 years earlier than previously thought, according to a new study by researchers from Canadian and British universities.

The first human settlement in North America, dated 14,000 years ago, is now believed to be at least 24,000 years old, or in other words, it dates back to the height of the last glacial period, says a group of researchers from universities in Canada and United Kingdom, reports Phys.org.
This conclusion is based on the study of objects found by archaeologist Jacques Cinq-Mars at the Bluefish Caves in northwest Canada between 1977 and 1987. At that time, the researcher applied radiocarbon dating to animal bones to elaborate the daring hypothesis that humans inhabited the region some 28,000 years ago. The theory was rated by the scientific community as highly controversial because of the absence of other sites of similar antiquity and the lack of evidence that indicates the presence of horse bones, mammoth, bison and reindeer in the Bluefish Caves was due to human activity.

由加拿大以及英國的多所大學的研究人員所組成的研究小組告訴 phys.org :「 第一位到達北美並定居的人原先認為是在 14000 年前出現,現在則被認為是在至少 24000 年前出現的,換句話說,可以追溯到上一個冰河期。」

這個結論是建立在對一些物件的研究上的,這些物件是由考古學家 Jacques Cinq-Mars 在 1977 到 1987 年間於加拿大西北部的藍魚洞穴( Bluefish Caves )發現的。在那時候,研究人員用放射性碳定年法來鑑定那些動物骸骨的年代,來證明一個大膽的假設,也就是人類在 28000 年前就在那個區域居住了。這個理論太具爭論性、不被科學界接受,因為並沒有其他相似的古老發現,而藍魚洞穴發現的馬骨、長毛象骨、野牛骨、馴鹿骨等,無法作為有人類活動的證據。
A History Changer
Lauriane Bourgeon a doctoral student at the Faculty of Anthropology at the University of Montreal, has studied about 36,000 fragments of bones and has found indisputable traces of human activity. Furthermore, around twenty or more bones showed likely traces of the same type of activity.

蒙特利爾大學人類學系博士生 Lauriane Bourgeon 在研究約 36000 件骨骼碎片後發現了明確的人類活動痕跡。而且有大約二十件或更多骨骸碎片顯示相近的同種活動痕跡。

“Series of straight, V-shaped lines on the surface of the bones were made by stone tools used to skin animals,” said Ariane Burke a professor in Université de Montréal’s Department of Anthropology. “These are indisputable cut-marks created by humans.”
In order to find out more, Bourgeon submitted the bones to further radiocarbon dating. The results were amazing. The oldest fragment, a horse mandible showing the marks of a stone tool apparently used to remove the tongue, was radiocarbon-dated at 19,650 years, which is equivalent to between 23,000 and 24,000 cal BP (calibrated years Before Present) writes phys.org.

蒙特利爾大學人類學教授 Ariane Burke 說:「 在骨骸上的一系列直線、 V 形線是因為剝動物皮用的石製工具造成的。這很明顯是人類造成的切痕,是明確的證據。」

phys.org 寫到:「 為了找到更多證據, Bourgeon 將這些骸骨送去進行更進一步的射性碳定年法測定。結果很驚人,最古老的骨骸碎片是一片馬的下顎骨,帶有用來移除舌頭的石製工具的痕跡,它的射性碳定年法鑑定結果是 19650 年,等同於 23000 到 24000 年前。 」

“Our discovery confirms previous analyses and demonstrates that this is the earliest known site of human settlement in Canada,” said Burke. It shows that Eastern Beringia was inhabited during the last ice age.”
Furthermore, Professor Burke states that studies in population genetics have demonstrated that a few thousand people lived in isolation from the rest of the work in Beringia 15,000 to 24,000 years ago. (Beringia is a vast region stretching from the Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories to the Lena River in Russia.)
“Our discovery confirms the ‘Beringian standstill [or genetic isolation] hypothesis,’” she said, “Genetic isolation would have corresponded to geographical isolation. During the Last Glacial Maximum, Beringia was isolated from the rest of North America by glaciers and steppes too inhospitable for human occupation to the West. It was potentially a place of refuge.”

Burke 說:「 我們的發現證明了先前的分析,也顯示了這是目前所知人類在加拿大最早的居所。這表示白令陸橋東部在上個冰河期時就有人居住。」

Burke 教授更一進步表示,族群遺傳學方面的研究顯示,15000 到 24000 年前,有數千人在白令陸橋中的一隅遺世獨立地生活。( 白令陸橋涵蓋很大的區域,從加拿大西北地區的馬更些河到俄羅斯的勒纳河。 )

她說:「 我們的發現證明了白令凍結或白令生殖隔離假設。生殖隔離與地理隔離是相對應的。在末次冰盛期在,白令陸橋因為冰川和平原而與北美其他部分隔絕開來,人類很難到西部居住。這有可能是一個安全地帶、避難所。」

來源: ancientcode